With an average of 11 murders per day, violent crime remains a major problem in Rio, according to figures from Brazil's Public Security Institute (ISP), a government body.
In favelas like Cantagalo, a bustling community on a hillside overlooking Copacabana beach in downtown Rio, where people often lack formal documents to prove they own their ramshackle homes, young men are disproportionately impacted by violence, analysts said.
"There is no clear definition of who owns the land in Cantagalo," said Vinicius Mariano de Carvalho, a lecturer at King's College London specializing in Brazilian politics.
"A population with a sense of ownership of their homes has more direct communitarian ties," he told the Thomson Reuters Foundation. "I believe this sense of ownership would reduce the vulnerability to criminality."